As you know, the web is built upon links between various bits of information. In fact, the basic language used to create websites is called HTML, which is short for Hypertext Markup Language. While the word hypertext might sound a bit like outer space talk, it actually refers to the fact that the content is linked to something else. When linking to web pages, we need to know the address of the page being linked. The official terminology for this address is uniform resource locator, or URL (pronounced as by the letters U-R-L) for short. URLs start with http:// and usually end with something like .com or .org.
Consider the address for finding features of the latest iPad on Apple’s web site:
Links and URLs : Schemes
The first part of the URL is called the scheme (previously referred to as a protocol). This tells the browser which interface should be used to access the address.The most commonly used schemes for viewing
web pages are HTTP and HTTPS. HTTP stands for hypertext transfer protocol. HTTPS is the same, except the s at the end indicates there is a secure connection in place.
Links and URLs : Domains
In the Apple address, apple.com is the part of the address called the domain that helps identify which computer houses the pages.
Links and URLs : Path
The rest of the address – /ipad/features/ is the path to the exact location of the information to be displayed.
In the case of the iPad web page, the actual content of the page is found inside the features folder, which itself is inside the ipad folder.